Friday, April 7, 2017

Learning and Memory PSYC 4690 Digital Poster Presentation

The library is proud to host the PSYC 4690 Learning & Memory class posters in the reading room. Stop by the library from April 5 to April 18 to see the student's posters.

For more information on the students and posters please click on the below link.

Evens P. Campbell

This poster board is the extension of my research paper based on John B. Watson’s theory of Behaviorism and its effectiveness in the world of advertisement.   Based on his science, consumers’ Psychologist Watson believes that humans are no different than machines, their behavior can be controlled and their behavior can be predicted through the process called behaviorism which was adopted from Ivan Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning.  

Fortune 500 Companies are capitalizing on the science of psychology based on the theory of John B. Watson, Harlow Gale, and Walter Dill Scott.    However, my research paper and this poster board gives you the reader and viewer a closer look on what marketers and advertiser are doing to trap the everyday consumer in a web of debt.  No longer do companies have to hit or miss when it comes to convincing consumers to buy their products or services.  John B. Watson believes that a company has the ability through science to appeal to the deep psychological senses of consumers no matter what, and get a high return on their investment.  According to Watson, people are like animals and machines.  They can be manipulated to do whatever you desire them to do through a process called classical conditioning.  This poster as well as my research paper gives you a bird eye’s view behind this science.  This poster board examines the three components that Watson believes are contributing factors to why marketers, advertisements, and companies are using based on scientific research to convince the public at large to shell out their hard earned dollars to purchase goods and services at the command of the companies.  It only takes 60 seconds for a commercial to air, or, and 15 seconds to read a printed ad, for a consumer to be convinced that the product being advertised is something of worth and value that they need.  Throughout this paper and poster I analyze key Fortune 500 Companies such as Apple, and Beats, and examine the five (5) components that Watson addressed and that companies are using to increase their bottom line by controlling the purchase behavior of the consumer.  The five (5) components are Brand Loyalty, Messaging, Packaging and Customer Service, Celebrity Star Power (Association).

Flor Torres

Watson was born on January 9, 1878 in South Carolina. He was born to Emma and Pickens Watson. When he was 16 years old he began his studies at Furman University, by the age of 21 he had obtain his Master’s degree . After graduation he went on to Chicago University to pursue a PhD in Experimental psychology under James Rowland Angell. He graduated from the University of Chicago in 1903 and stayed there for five years to work under Angell and later to work as a faculty member. During his studying at Chicago University he met his First wife Mary Ickes Watson with whom he had two children, Mary and John. In 1908, Watson took a faculty position as a professor and director of the psychological laboratory at John Hopkins University. All of his accomplishments and career in academic psychology ended because of an affair that he had with a graduate student of his, Rosalie Rayner. Because of this affair, he divorced his first wife Mary and shortly after married Rosalie, this situation caused a huge scandal at the time and the administrators of Hopkins University were led to ask him to resign. Watson had two other children with Rosalie, James and Williams, and they all moved to New York after his resignation, he then began his career in advertising in the J. Walter advertising agency. After Rosalie’s death in 1935, Watson moved to a small farm in Woodbury, Connecticut, where he lived on his own until his death in 1958. Prior to his death he burned up the majority of his personal letters and paperwork such as his notes for his experiments.  One of Watson’s greatest accomplishment is the “Little Albert” Experiment in which he demonstrated how a person can be conditioned into having fear when there was no such fear initially.

Ivan Hernandez

Extreme fear towards an object, person or environment is generally the result of an out of the ordinary and negative experience, associated or directly related to what is feared. A current phobia that can be equally found among different ethnic groups, genders and ages is the fear of hospitals or popularly, known as Nosocomephobia. According to Lisa Fritscher, the phobia towards hospitals can consist of uncontrollable anxiety towards the physical building or what embodies it. Symptoms of this phobia involve of shaking, nausea, breath shortness, rise in anxiety, fear of dying and inability to speak. This phobia affects the individual because it stops them from visiting hospital settings. Fear of hospitals is far more common than what the public has in mind. An example of a known individual who suffered of hospital phobia was the president Richard Nixon. The president had suffered of a phlebitis condition but refused to undergo a hospital treatment fearing that if he entered a hospital he was never going to "come out alive."

Hospital phobia can be a curable condition. The process of healing begins by identifying the main sources of the fear and what caused them.  Once these roots have been identified, they must be talked about with a therapist to figure out a way to try to desensitize the condition. One of the most important steps is to be exposed to what causes the fear little by little until one can actually be normally in contact with it. Medication could be used if it is necessary to reduce or control the symptoms.

Aaron Lockhart

Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett was well renowned British psychologist who would eventually become the first professor of experimental psychology at the University of Cambridge. He is also regarded as one of the forerunners of cognitive psychology.  Bartlett is best known for his book “Remembering”, more specifically his idea of Schema Theory. Bartlett was conducting a study with a folktale titled “The War of the Ghosts”, when he noticed that many of the current recollections were not accurate and noted that many of the subjects would compensate for unknown information by substituting facts already in their memory. (Bartlett 1933) (Klein et al, 2015) . To better explain this theory, Bartlett posed that humans have an inventory of subconscious mental structures, or schemata. These structures produce errors in recall, when they interact with incoming information. So, our previous experiences with similar stimuli will affect our recall of older experiences.  This is also called memory reconstruction, which is the alteration of a memory to be consistent with the individual’s view of the world.  (Bartlett 1933). 

Rachel Butler

For my research assignment I had the opportunity to dissect and analyze the life and work of psychologist Albert Bandura. Bandura came from humble beginnings growing up in a large European-immigrant family living in a small town in Canada. He went on to obtain a bachelor's degree in psychology from the University of British Columbia as well as a master's degree in psychology and a Ph.D in clinical psychology from the University of Iowa. After graduating, he secured his first teaching job at Stanford University signed to a one year contract, but was persuaded to stay at the university by highly-respected child psychologist, Robert Sears. It was through the inspiration of Sears' work with children regarding aggression studies that Albert Bandura's focus shifted to research on social learning in children. His first study on low-risk adolescents exhibiting aggressive behaviors led to the finding that adolescents gain their aggressive behavior cues from witnessing their parent's aggressive displays and actions. This modeling theory was further tested in younger children in the Bobo Doll Experiment that Bandura is most famous for. With the help of his co-workers Dorrie and Shelia Ross, Bandura devised a study to further expand on the research by having individual children witness as an adult interacted with a stand-up inflatable Bobo doll in either a caring or aggressive manner. The children were then sent alone into the room they were just observing and Bandura and his collages observed whether the children would display the behaviors they had just witness from the adult model in their own interactions with the doll. Across genders, the children modeled either the aggressive or non-aggressive acts of play that they had seen the adult model engage in. Piaget, Kohlberg, and Chomsky's stage like views of child development and learning at the time did not seem to Bandura to include the social and cognitive aspects that he believed greatly influenced the creation and expression of acts of behavior. Not only was Bandura an advocate for the environmental effects on behavior, he also believed that our own behavior influences the environment that we find ourselves in and create for ourselves. A chicken and egg type of cycle ensues in which the environment holds onto an inverse relationship with the subject at hand. He called this process reciprocal determinism. In other words, people can exhibit human agency in which they actively interact with their environment. Bandura's social cognitive/social learning theory focuses on not only how we learn, but what we do with the information that we are provided with. He proposed the concept of self-efficacy, also called self-regulation, in which after having seen modeled behavior we compare the information that we have about ourselves in that domain and that of the model or standard that we are trying to emulate. If we feel that we have matched up to the behavior response that we have seen or were aiming for, we reward ourselves and if we do not feel we did so we self-punish.  

Isayah Watkins

I chose to do my project on C.L. Hull (Clark Leonard Hull)Hull was born in Akron, New York on May 24, 1884 and died in New Haven, Connecticut on May 10, 1952, a few weeks before his birthday. At the age of 24, he also contracted polio in his left leg leaving him disabled and relying on walking canes and leg braces to get around. This tragedy occurred after starting his work as an apprentice engineer which eventually caused his shift to psychology. Even with his given circumstances, Hull still managed to receive both his bachelor’s and master’s degree from the University of Michigan at 29 years of age and went on to receive his PhD from University of Wisconsin-Madison at 34 years of age in 1918 with a dissertation on “Quantitative Aspects of the Evolution of Concepts”. Hull went on to work at his alma mater, University of Wisconsin-Madison, as a teacher for 10 years after graduating. In 1928, he wrote his first book titled, Aptitude Testing and eventually chose a different field of psychology to pursue after he began to have doubts of his future in that field. In 1929, Clark took a position at Yale University where he remained for the rest of his working career. During his time at Yale as a research professor, Hull became one of the first to study hypnosis and in 1933 he published, Hypnosis and Suggestibility. In 1943, with the help of one of his most prominent students, Kenneth Spence, Hull published, Principles of Behavior. In 1945, Hull was awarded the Warren medal from the society of Experimental Psychology.

Susan Simmons

Classical Conditioning Theory is a product of the Behaviorist movement in psychology. The Behaviorists were a group of scientists who focused on stimulus-response connections. Behaviorists are only interested in studying behaviors that can be observed and measured. They are not concerned with cognitive or emotional responses because cognitive and emotional responses cannot be exactly measured. Pavlov’s experiments have already been discussed in the preceding paragraph, so let me give a more modern example. If a beautiful, sexy woman shows interest in an old, fat man as he stands beside a fancy automobile, the automobile will become a conditioned stimulus (paired with sexy women who like fat old men) for a fat, old man to purchase a fancy automobile.
In 1938, B.F. Skinner, a Behaviorist known as the father of Operant Conditioning, conducted experiments to investigate the influence of punishment and reinforcement on behavior. Using his “operant chamber”, Skinner established that animals learn with the use of punishment or reinforcement. Skinner would divide the box into two chambers where both side were separately electrified. He would shock the rat on one side and the rat would move to the other side. Skinner discovered it would usually take considerable amount of learning for the rat to choose to go back to the originally electrified side of the box when the reverse side was electrified. Later, Albert Bandura studied skinner’s theory and altered it to include learning through observation of others receiving reinforcement and punishment. Bandura called this Vicarious Learning and it is often paired with Operant Conditioning in advertising. For example, if a person watches a commercial where a person is being loved and adored because he cooked frozen Chicken Pot Pies for dinner, the person is more likely to purchase frozen Chicken Pot Pies, no matter that they understand how terrible they are in flavor and nutrition.

Markeysha Richardson

In a brief summary the focus of this project was to discuss punishment which is used as a tool in parenting to control unwanted behavior in children. Punishment has been widely used within society for years and continues to be prevalent. Punishment shows a child what type of behavior to not exhibit but it does not show a child what behavior to actually exhibit. The various types of punishment are: Positive punishment which involves an aversive event to decrease unwanted behavior. Negative punishment which involves removal of reinforcement to decrease unwanted behavior. Omission training which is used in place of negative punishment by providing reinforcement with conditions attached. Response cost which involves unwanted behavior results in removal or not obtaining reinforcement. Last but not least, Time out which involves removal of reinforcement for a certain period of time.
 Behavioral psychologist such as Edwin R. Guthrie and B.F. Skinner had similar views in regards to punishment. Guthrie’s Contiguity Theory states that punishment and behavior needs to have a link together so that the child can associate the two for punishment to be effective. Skinner on the other hand was an advocate for positive reinforcement such as rewarding good behavior so that it occurs again and negative reinforcement such as removing reinforcement when unwanted behavior occurs. Negative reinforcement can be confused with response cost but it is not the same. Both psychologist agreed that punishment can be reduced but not eliminated. Although, Skinner believed that extinction (totally removing reinforcement) was necessary to remove unwanted behavior for good. The two psychologist believed that punishment could cause also cause adverse reactions such as aggression in a child in the future. Research states that punishment is best effective if it is severe and consistent. 

Alma Alejandro

What I have learned throughout this project, I learned that Judson S. Brown had so much love for psychology. From his early days to serving in World War II being part of the psychology department to the researches and contributions he did in laboratories. Brown worked with many individuals in researches and was very influential, he was considered the “doctor father’ to some MA and PhD psychologists. In addition, in 1960 he accomplished the title Graduate Research Professor at the University of Florida. One of Brown’s most known works was the work on motivation he developed different concepts of the term motivation and worked with the distinguishing of drive theory and drive stimulus. Also, his book The Motivation of Behavior goes a little more into detail on his thoughts of motivation. His work with Neil Miler and other works helped proved that, “motivational concepts could be tied to preceding and subsequent stimulus conditions, making it possible to define motivational associatively.” In addition, one of his works is the vicious circle behavior in the book, Learning Principles and Applications by, Stephen B. Klein. The vicious circle behavior is demonstrating that a rat is running around in circles getting shocked meanwhile doesn’t know that if it would stop running it wouldn’t get shocked. Brown was not only a psychologist he was also an inventor. He invented the interval timer, which influenced the hunter time and which then influenced what we know now the microprocessors. Additional facts about Brown were that he was a magician and a photographer.

Parrie Mashburn

I did research on Avram Noam Chomsky. In 1928, Chomsky was born in Philadelphia , PA ( Crabtree, 1999). He has a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania.(Klein, 2015 page 328). He received the Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association in 1984(Klein, 2015 page 328). He has contributed to the fields of psychology, programing  language theory and political science ( He contributed the Chomsky hierarchy, Chomsky normal form, and context free grammars in the field of computer science (  page 6) . In his argument against Skinner, he believes that “ mastery of a language is not merely a matter of having one’s verbal behaviors ‘controlled’ by various elements of the environment, including others utterances”.  The Stimulus independent and historically unbound describe language use. Stimulus independent is “ virtually any words can be spoken in response to any environment stimulus, depending on one’s state of mind”.( Stanford: Innateness and Language, 2008).

Language acquisition is one area that Chomsky is famous for. He believes that it is innate. There is a critical age for language acquisition. Language acquisition happens on its own.  There are stages of language acquisition and children go through these stages about the same way. He has developed a   Cognitive development theory.  He believed that people only have the ability of Language Acquisition Device. The way people process is the area that Cognitive psychology concentrate on. They believe that people use their senses to process information and to relate it to others.  Cognitive psychology believes in internal mental states, and uses the scientific method compared to introspection for research. (Nelson 2013). Universal Grammar was developed by Chomsky. He believed that each sentences in a language had deep structure and surface structure to represent it.  Deep structure is “a direct representation of the semantics underlying the sentence “and surface structure is “the syntactical representation."Chomsky also is a political activist and he critics U.S. foreign policies. His views are anarchist.

Sharon Flores

Systematic desensitization therapy was developed by Joseph Wolpe in 1958 after witnessing that the psychoanalysis therapy was not successfully helping soldiers overcome their post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Wolpe developed this therapy with the purpose of helping people overcome their phobias through the process of counter conditioning. Counter conditioning teaches a person to associate a relaxation state with a phobic object instead of associating it with fear or anxiety. Wolpe’s systematic desensitization therapy was derived from the Pavlov’s classical conditioning theory which demonstrated that it was possible to learn new behaviors if an association of a biological stimulus with a previously neutral stimulus was established. Based on three animal studies Wolpe was able to infer that if animals were able to learn and unlearn behaviors so could human beings. In order for a patient to successfully extinguish the fear caused by a phobia they must complete the three steps of the systematic desensitization therapy. The first step is to create anxiety hierarchy which is a list of situations that would cause the person anxiety and are related to their phobia. The patient must come up with at least 10 scenarios and rank them from least disturbing to most disturbing. The second step is to learn how to engage in a deep relaxation state at will. Once the patient creates an anxiety hierarchy and can completely relax at will they are able to move into the systematic desensitization stage. In this stage counterconditioning takes place and a relaxation state is paired with the feared stimulus. The patient will work down their anxiety hierarchy until they completely overcome their phobia.  

Maegan Green

Have you ever wondered why you are drawn to certain products you see on TV or items you find in stores? Unbelievably you are being condition to gravitate towards those things because the company wants you to. Color selection is essential in marketing because it has the power to change our mood. Depending on the feeling you want your audience to experience determines the group of colors used. My poster background is yellow, not by accident. Yellow is an eye-catching pigment that is meant to invoke courage and energy.
Four persuasion methods marketing and advertising companies use are as follows:
Bait and Switch - This is an advertisement where the seller offers a product or service which the advertiser doesn't really intend or want to sell, but uses it as a lead to get customers to buy a different product or service.
Foot-in-the-door - In this two-step approach, marketers begin by asking for and obtaining a small commitment. Once you have already complied with the first smaller request, you are more likely to also comply with a second, larger request. The company will first try to sell you a cheap product but eventually work up to getting you to buy the more expensive item.
Door-in-the-face - Here we have another two-step design where marketers start by discussing a large commitment. When the other person refuses, they then throw out a smaller and more reasonable request. There is a feeling of guilt the seller is trying to place on the buyer here.
That’s not all - In this deceptive maneuver, you have someone offering something to somebody, but rather than give it to them as a final item, they will give it in incremental bits. Not allowing you to respond to each part given. They just keep on offering more.
Among these four strategies the media must also decide which of the two persuasion routes they want to go. They will either go the central route in which they need a lot of focus and the undivided attention of their audience member for the full message to come across. Or the peripheral route which requires little to no concentration is needed. This route is all about simple and attention grabbing.
The lengths that some brands will go to is unbelievable. In three separate stages you can become classically conditioned to desire whatever product or service they are trying to sell. Stage one: You are presented with the unconditioned stimulus (US) that is trying to get a positive emotion or unconditioned response (UR). Stage two: they introduce and associate “Brand X” with the unconditioned stimulus intending to still get that same positive emotion. Stage three: now they can remove the unconditioned stimulus making “Brand X” a conditioned stimulus and your positive emotion now the conditioned response.  

Makayla Lusk

John Watson was born on a farm in North Carolina On January 9, 1878. His Mother was very religious and loving and his father was the complete opposite. Even though Watson was very intelligent he didn’t apply himself. However, at age 16 he enrolled at Baptist Affiliated Furman University, his goal was to become a minister. Watson, stayed at Furman until his mother died and then moved on to the University of Chicago, to pursue graduate work in philosophy. Over time, Watson realized he did not want to study philosophy and began to study Psychology because of James Rowland Angell. In 1903 Watson graduated with his Ph.D. and graduated with honors at age 25. Watson stayed at the University of Chicago as a professor until 1908, until he got an offer from John Hopkins University. While Watson was at John Hopkins he flourished in the world of Psychology. After is 12 years at working at John Hopkins he got fired for an affair scandal. Watson then found work in the advertising business and was very successful. In 1935, Watson’s life once again took a turn for the worst, his wife Rosalie passed away. This was the only time his children could remember him showing affection. After Rosalie’s death, Watson shut himself off from the world and moved into a farmhouse. In 1957 the APA awarded Watson with a citation that praised his work. Before Watson’s death on September 25, 1958, he burned all of his notes, manuscripts, and letters.
While Watson was at John Hopkins he successfully conditioned a baby to fear furry white things. This experiment was called the “Little Albert Experiment”. Pavlov and Vladimir are what influenced Watson’s study of classically conditioning humans. While Albert was playing with the rat Walter created a loud noise with a hammer which startled Albert, and this is the unconditioned stimulus. After this Albert became afraid of the white rat and constantly tried to escape from it. However, Albert was afraid of all white fluffy things after this experiment, not just the rat. The experiment was somewhat unethical because Little Albert did not consent to the experiment and he also had no idea what was going on. What makes matters even worse is that Watson didn’t have a chance to extinguish Albert’s fear that he conditioned him to have. Watson was a psychologist that was very intelligent, handsome, charming and stylish. These characteristics alone made him desirable but his work spoke even louder than his appearance. Watson contributed so much to the world of psychology from the time he was 25 till his death. During his lifetime, he influenced a majority of his students, he even influenced people that were outside of psychology. I think what made Watson so successful is that he had a passion for his work. In conclusion, I hope you walk away knowing more about John Watson, his contributions to psychology, and his famous Little Albert Experiment.

Clarissa Perez

For my Introduction to Learning and Memory Class, we had to research an individual that contributed to the field of psychology. Albert Bandura was born in a small town in Alberta, Canada. He attended a small high school, it was only one building, and the educational resources were low. Despite this, his high school produced an atypical rate of graduates. After he graduated high school, his parents gave him two options: he could either stay in town and drink his life away like most individuals do, or he could pursue an education. He went with the latter and attended the University of British Columbia in Vancouver where he obtained his B.A. in psychology. After completing his undergraduate studies, he goes off to the University of Iowa where he completed his M.A. in 1951 and his P.h.D. degree in clinical psychology in the year of 1952. Bandura is best known for his bobo doll experiment, social cognitive theory/social learning theory, self efficacy, human agency, and reciprocal determinism. 

Patricia Garnica

Frederic Charles Bartlett was well known for his experimental psychology background. Bartlett was born on October 20, 1886, in England.  Bartlett did not have an easy childhood, he got sick with        pleuisy at a very young age, and needed to be home school his father and the town minister had a library where he did his studies. He conducted the famous experiment called "The War of the Ghosts". This was done to determine memory. He found that the retailing of events are influenced by your background. This means that it depends on what you have experienced in life, how you will retail a story. Also, he had several books publish but the most known was published in 1932 called Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Bartlett was very influential in the British psychology. Most of his work and his devotion was to the University of Cambridge.  He died on September 30, 1969, at the age of 82 from a short illness. 

Jessica Belovoskey

Herman Ebbinghaus was born January 24, 1850 in Barmen, Germany. Ebbinghaus became interested in psychology after reading Elements of Psychophysics by Gustav Fechner.  Herman Ebbinghaus attended The University of Bon in 1867 at the age of 17. He studied philosophy and history mainly. At the University of Bon, at the age of 23, on August 16th, 1873 Ebbinghaus completed his doctorate. According to Klein, Ebbinghaus is most known for evolving a technique for empirically studying higher mental processes. Ebbinghaus conducted elaborate studies in memory using solely himself as his test subject. In these studies, he created 10 to 12 syllables by using two consonants separated by a vowel. Ebbinghaus memorized over 150 lists of syllables in his experiments. He forgot at least half of what he learned within twenty fours which lead him to the discovery of the forgetting curve. The forgetting curve shows the regression of forgotten information drops over a period six days.  Ebbinghaus was also the pioneer of sentence completion exercises which were established to gauge the mental capabilities of schoolchildren. (2014) These sentence completion exercises are fundamental in English education in the United States today. Ebbinghaus discovered Spacing Effect which is an optical illusion that occurs due to the perception of the objects size. (2014) Herman Ebbinghaus died on February 26th, 1909 from pneumonia leaving behind a legacy in the field of psychology as well as learning and development.

Viviana Hernandez

Who wants to learn?

The research theory I decided to study was the Social Learning Theory. It is now known as Social-Cognitive Theory. The man behind this theory was Albert Bandura. He happened to stumble into psychology because that was not his first choice of major in college. He fell in love with psychology after taking a course. He was the first person to go against all the behaviorist at that time. Okay, I am getting ahead of myself. You are probably wondering what exactly is this theory. Basically,  it was a study that focused on how ones learn by observing. It was composed of four major components. One had to learn by watching others do things. One might or might not learn the new things (internal process). Obstacles that were encountered would be challenged in order to obtain the mission. The learning would not depend on the reward or punishment.  The learning would eventually depend on the person themselves and not the action being done. This is where his major rival comes into place. You see B.F. Skinner would say that in order for someone to learn one had to be rewarded or punished to do so. Albert Bandura theory did not agree he performed an experiment were children observed a woman with a bobo doll. The woman would either beat the doll or show affection towards it. The child was then taken to a room with lots of toys. Eventually, all the toys were removed and then the children began imitating what they had seen the woman do earlier. Not all of the children in the experiment observed harsh punishment towards the bobo doll. There was a set if children that watched the woman be kind and gentle. They children that observed that also showed kindness towards the bobo doll.  Keep in mind that the children were not rewarded for their actions. Here is the big question you might be asking. Can one really learn just by observing other actions? Albert Bandura did say that in order for this to work four major things had to take place. The individual observing had to pay full attention to the model. The individual had to remember what he had observed. He did go on to say that this step was taking place in the brain. The third thing that had to happen was that the observer had to reproduce or produce what he had learned. This meant that the observer had to reenact what he had learned.  The last but not least was the observer had to have the drive to reproduce what he/she had observed. Attempting to find an actual research was pretty difficult but I stumbled upon a species of monkeys that were using this exact learning method. The macaque monkeys are a type of monkeys that have revolutionized their learning. The monkeys learn by observing the older monkeys. The younger monkeys have to learn to master what they have observed from the older monkeys in order to eat. The set of macaque monkeys lives an area that is highly visited by tourist. Since the monkeys feeding needs have not been satisfied by the locals the monkeys have become thieves. Yes, you heard right the monkeys have learned to snatch belongings from the tourist. They will take away their glasses, flip-flops or anything they believe has to value to the tourist. The macaque monkeys have become so smart that they have learned to barter. No one has taught the monkeys how to barter or how to take belongings they have learned this by observing older macaque monkeys doing these things. I also found this research to be very interesting because this research was contradicting B.F. Skinner beliefs. Mr. Bandura and Mr. McDonald performed a study in 1963. It was known as Influence of Social Reinforcement and the Behavior of Models in Shaping Children’s Moral Judgement.  In this experiment, they wanted to see how if any changes were to impact the children moral judgment if the observed a model doing something that went against their own moral judgments. They did the study in 3 groups of children.  The first groups watched the model and were reinforced. The second group watched the model but did not get reinforced. The third group did not watch the model but were reinforced. The children were tested based on a generalization effect. It proved that children can model other people’s action that goes against the children’s moral judgment.  This proved that modeling someone was more effective than operant conditioning. The study was interesting because despite what the children had been raised to do when placed in that circumstance their response was not what you would expect to be. I guess this answers your entire questions can one really learn by observing.
Alejandra Alba

John B. Watson was the father of behaviorism. He was not very interested in hid academics until his mentor Gordon Moore introduced him to psychology and that is where he gained a passion in psychology and got his Masters degree in it. John is famous for his many publications, experiments and awards; one of the most famous experiment was on little Albert and the conditioned behavior with the rat.He is listed as one of the most influential psychologist of the twentieth century. His ideas and beliefs were based on how psychology was a science of human behavior. He believed on the importance of using animal subjects to study reflexes activated by heredity which was on his publication on Behavior: An introduction to Comparative Psychology. What caught my attention was how very professional and experts in different behaviors don’t use those theories they write about on their own lives.
Watson was influenced by Pavlov and his conditioning process in dogs. He thought that he would be able to do the same thing but with humans showing emotional reactions and classically conditioning in people; he also applied his ideas to human subjects as he recommended to parents to use these principles with their children. He used an authoritarian parenting style with his four children and even though he might have been considered an expert in parenting he did not have a good relationship with his own children. His only daughter tried to commit suicide and his son committed suicide at age forty. His ideas and beliefs were based on how psychology was a science of human behavior.

Karen Alvarado

Karen Alvarado

Edward L Thorndike also known as the father of educational psychology was born August 31, 1874 in Williamsburg, Massachusetts.  He graduated from Wesleyan University moved to Harvard to complete his graduate work and finally obtained his PhD from Colombia University.  He began his career at Women's College of Western Reserve University in Ohio but only lasted a year before deciding to move back to teach at Colombia. He moved back in 1899 and didn’t retire until 1940. He was inspired by William James after reading his book Principles of Psychology.  Thanks to his inspiration in psychology, Thorndike conducted many ground breaking reaserch in learning theory.  His main focus was the study of learning. While working at Colombia University, Thorndike worked on a few of many great pieces of work in Psychology. One well know study he conducted was his extensive study with animals. This resulted in the creation of the instrument known as the “puzzle boxes”. This experiment lead to a many new terms and opened up many new doors for the educational psychology.

CLASS OF 2017 
This report is based on the information I gathered through research in order to explain exposure therapy. Exposure therapy is a particular cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy technique that is used on patients. This technique is used to help individuals who have PTSD, phobias, general anxiety, OCD, acute stress, panic attacks. However, it should be only practiced when its safe and the therapist are experienced and licensed to do so. Exposure therapy purpose is to help those who suffer from mental health issues that lets them deal and gain control of their life again and to stop fearing or avoiding items or situations. It has to be practiced carefully since it can cause for the patient to be able to be traumatize again. It consists of different techniques depending on the individual and the therapist will choose the best method is necessary for the particular trauma of the patient. As well, exposure therapy is the to be able to help individuals to manage fears they have acquired by assessing the individually and allowing them through time and therapy sessions to expose them to certain situations like desensitization. The individual gradually opens up and goes over the techniques that best help him with his particular drama. Moreover, to create a well environment to make the patient comfortable in the therapy sessions. The use of exposure therapy techniques varies depend on the mental health issues the patients are having. However, some therapist does not implement it because of the concerns that this might not help but it will increase their symptoms. It is hard to work due to the fact that individuals have tried to avoid certain situations or objects and exposing them causes people to feel different emotions and sometimes unable to continue with the therapy due to what it consisted of.

Michelle Blanco

Ivan Pavlov was born on September 14, 1984, in Ryan Russia in which he grew up in a very religious home. His father was the priest village in which he wants Pavlov to grow up in his steps of being a theologist. However, Pavlov thought differently and was more interested in the field of science. He decided to leave home and go to Saint Petersburg State University where he got his degree candidate of natural science. After graduation a few years later  Pavlov received the Nobel prize in physiology in 1904. Later then receiving the Copley medal in 1915 in which he became interested in how to stop a dog from salivating a lot. He did an experiment where a dog would just salivate from its natural instincts but, he wanted to know if he could change their behavior if they were conditioned. So, Pavlov decided to bring in a dog and dog food in which the dog would salivate he then decided to add a bell which had no reaction from the dog making it a neutral stimulus. Pavlov then decided to pair the bell with the food after a few trials in which the dog would only hear the bell and automatically know that there was food on the way. In which Pavlov discovered that it was called classical conditioning and made him realized that people would be able to change their behaviors if they are being conditioned to something and that is why Pavlov’s  experiment is well known today.

Gemma Cardenas

For the purpose of this project I did my research on the history of Elizabeth Loftus, a cognitive psychologist who has done extended experiments on memory. Loftus’s career is based on how we recall memories, and how accurate these memories are to the actual fact. She is best known for her research on the misinformation effect, this theory discusses that our memories are so vulnerable that they can be easily alter by the simple power of suggestion. To explain this theory let’s keep in mind that we have different types of memories, but the type of memory Loftus focus on is known as episodic memory or also known as memories of events. This type of memories are encoded, stored and retrieved, however we don’t always retrieve memories exactly as how they happened because memory can be easily constructed. She discovered that individuals are more prone to the misinformation effect when they are confronted by authority figures this lead Loftus to apply her work on the legal system specifically with eyewitness testimonies. She has testified in hundreds of cases over the vulnerability on eyewitness testimonies and the doubt of how accurate their accusation are. Later in the 1990’s, Loftus started researching a different aspect of memory that consisted of the idea of implanting new ideas for an entire event to create a new memory also known as a false memory.  Thanks to her distinguished knowledge on the topic she is still influencing a lot of college students through her lectures as a distinguished professor for the department of psychology and social behavior, social ecology and law at the University of California Irvine.
Cesar Cardona

John  B. Watson was an American psychologist who lead America in the theory of behaviorism with his belief that human and animal behaviors could be explained in terms of conditioning, originally this theory was not accepted until later. Watsons original ideas came from the great known Pavlov who conditioned a dog to salivate by pairing the bell and food many times and presenting it to the dog, while later taking away the food causing the dog to salivate with just the sound of the bell although no food was present. He began to conduct experiments on animals to condition them to certain stimuli which later influenced the field of animal conditioning and animal training. Watson also believed that who we are as people is influenced by the environment and soon conducted an experiment where he conditioned an infant” Little Watson:” to fear white rats through the pairing of the sight of a white rat and a loud noise. At first Little Albert was not afraid of the white rat, but the more time Watson presented the loud noise and a rat Little Albert began to become afraid until the point where he was even afraid of white things in general. Although Little Albert remained afraid of rats and certain white things psychologists and health professions were able to find a cure to phobias and fears through conditioning methods. After Watsons, famous scandals of having an affair with one of his students, and various unethical experiments, Watson was forced to resign his faculty position at the College of John Hopkins and perused a career in the advertisement. Watson believed he could apply his psychology ideas to increase a company’s advertising strategies by engaging human’s emotions of fear, happiness, and excitement to buy a company’s products. James B. Watson soon retired and continued publishing books dealing with psychology and behaviorism before he died. 

Victoria Gonzales

Edward Lee Thorndike was born the year of 1874 and died in 1949. With in that time he accomplished many things. He received he Doctorate Degree from the Columbia University. The study that was done on Thorndike looked into the background history of he Law of Effect and Law of Readiness. The Law of Readiness is when any person or animal must be motivated to learn a new behavior in a certain setting. The Law of Effect trial and error is used to find the appropriate behavior for a certain environment. Once the behavior is performed a reward as given and the behavior is forever associated with that environment. Thorndike did a lot of his study on animals and the associative process. In 1911 he published his thesis "Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals". His study showed the process in which an animal learns a new behavior. The main study he was known for is the "puzzle box" experiment he had done with cats. He would place a hungry cat into a box and the only way for the cat to get out is by pushing a button or pulling a lever. He would then place a plate of tuna outside of the box and let the cat get out of the box on its own, to get to the tuna. When the cat was trying to get out of the box it would use trial and error to get the door open. Once they got themselves out the first time they associated that way to get out every time they were places in the box. Thorndike would time the cats speed on getting out of the box every time it was placed in it. Each time the cat got quicker and quicker at getting out of the box to get to the food. Although the cat learned the behavior to get out of the box Thorndike would say it’s because they were ready to learn that behavior. As in they were so hungry and wanted the food that they did everything they could to satisfy their hunger. This experiment gave way to his two laws by showing the cat had to be ready or motivated (hunger) to learn the behavior that it needs to perform in order to get out of the box. The cat then associated that behavior with way to get to food every time it went into the box hungry. Thorndike has given way to two laws that can be applied to any animal along with any human. 

Denisse Hernandez Mora

Edward Lee Thorndike was born on August 31, 1874, to E. R. and Abbie B. Thorndike. He was their second child, the only boy out of four kids. His father had a background in law, and his mother in literature, so when he went to college he was going to follow in their footsteps and study literature, until he read William James' Principles of Psychology and attended one of his lectures, which inspired him to change his major to psychology. He began to conduct experiments in animal behavior with baby chicks in mazes, and after showing promising results he was encouraged to continue his research by his professors. This led to his famous cat puzzle box experiments, where he would place a hungry cat in a puzzle box that required them to exhibit a certain behavior, such as pulling a string, in order to escape and receive food. He published his famous dissertation Animal Intelligence in 1898 which was revolutionary in the field of behavioral psychology. In it he outlined the premise for his famous law of effect, that simply put states that any behavior that results in a satisfying outcome is more likely to be repeated, while any behavior that results in an unsatisfying outcome is less likely to be repeated. This experiment also reflected his law of readiness, which says that a subject must be motivated in order for learning to take place; in this case, the cats were motivated by their hunger, otherwise they would not have attempted to escape. Despite his start in animal behavior studies, his true passion was educational psychology, which would be the major focus of his career. Thorndike was interested in such matters such as the effectiveness of repetition in education. He was also interested in the field of adult learning, and oversaw experiments that set out to prove the validity of the long held belief that the power of learning significantly decreases with ones age. During the first world war he also worked with the U.S. army to help develop the basis for the army entrance exam that is still being used to this day, as well as helped developed college entrance exams. He died on August 9. 1949.

 Kasandra Moreno

Dr. Albert Bandura has become a very significant psychologist and he deserves all the credit, for hard work and dedication paid off. He was born on December 4, 1925 in a small village located in northern Alberta, Canada. Most of us recognize him for his experiments done in the past from the bobo doll experiment to social learning and the theory of self- efficacy. Both of his parents emigrated to Canada for a much better life opportunity for all their 6 children! His parents highly emphasized the importance of pursuing an education and enjoying life one day at a time. All his education was done at the only school that was in town and their curriculum was ran by two teachers. Every student had to teach themselves the material if they wanted to graduate high school and attend college. Bandura saw this just as a challenge and made him realize to only rely on himself and grasp on to reality tighter making the best out his school years. His career came about by chance and he wasn’t expecting to find the perfect career of his lifetime. He attended the University of Columbia and one day while he was bored at the library very early he found a course catalog by chance and that’s when he first saw “psychology” for the first time! This sparked his curiosity and took the course and loved it! Next thing he knew his major changed from Biological Sciences to Psychology. He graduated in just 3 years and then moved on to his masters and PhD which was all done at the University of Iowa; this was suggested by his previous advisor. Bandura explored the depths of human action and motivation. While was working on his master’s degree he first studied on adolescent aggression and in fact this was what lead his attention on modeling, leaning and imitation. Not to mention he also met his wife Virginia at a golf game and it was all thanks to an “unaspiring reading assignment”. He fell in love at first sight and they have been together since 1952 and have two daughters. His first job was offered as an acting instructor at Stanford university. He received another job offer midway through his first academic term in which, he was considering at Santa Rosa and it was going to be a combination of clinical work in a community center and part time teaching at Santa Rosa Junior college. In fear of Dr. Bandura leaving the campus chair department Robert Sears offered him a three-year assistant professorship in the interim. At that moment was when he took the decision to join Stanford instead and that was the best decision he could have made. Until the day of today he is currently still working there as happy as ever. This college met all his requirements and was what he was looking for raging from gifted students to the freedom to explore as much as your heart desires. He is considered as the most influential psychologist to exist and most influential psychologists of all time. 

Elizabeth Patino

Martin Seligman was born in Albany, New York in 1942. He went to Princeton University and graduated with a A.B in philosophy, in 1964. After a few years, he graduated from The University of Pennsylvania with a Ph.D. in psychology. While he was working for this degree, and even after, he developed his most famous theory, Learned Helplessness. Before his theory, psychologist had only focused on the negative or “unhappy state of mind.” Seligman’s work led to the discovery of “positive psychology,” which helped psychologist to explore this new area of psychology (“Martin Seligman”) He has written over 20 self- help books and has been featured in more than 250 articles (Who is..”). In 1998, Seligman was president of the American Psychological Association (“Martin Seligman). Today, he still educates at the University of Pennsylvania, and continues to share his work. He is also the director of the positive psychology at the University of Pennsylvania (“Martin Seligman) 

Abraham Maslow, the contributor of “The Hierarchy of Needs,” was an inspiration to the development of his theory (Cherry). Also, psychologist Aaron Beck, was one of his inspirations, as he is the father of cognitive therapy (“Martin Seligman PH. D.”). There are a few critics that questioned the “Learned Helplessness Theory,” like Rizley’s study. In this study, according to Rizley, learned helplessness did not exactly explained what he observed during his experiment. Since depressed subjected did not exactly choose the expected factors due to their failure (Klein). 

The learned helplessness theory, is a theory in which depression causes an individual to believe that they are helpless. They believe they have no control over the situation, and eventually give up, ignoring the fact that they are in control (“Martin Seligman."). This idea came to live when he shouted at his daughter for whining, while he was weeding plants. His daughter after that day, decided to give up whining so she would not have deal with an upset father, anymore (“Martin Seligman.". This is where his idea of learned helplessness developed from. With his theory, Seligman “helped psychologist to understand the basis of depression and stress (“Martin Seligman”).” With this theory, he was able to help military soldiers, by working with them directly to reduce their post traumatic stressed disorder (PTSD), in which it decreased over time (“Who is..”). Another of his major works, is optimism. He was interested in this idea when he encountered “pessimistic attitudes,” which lead to this development (Cherry). These are a few of his major works that has shaped psychology, today.

Martha Rodriguez

Speech Therapy is defined as the treatment and assessment of people with speech and communication disorders. Although, it is much more than this as it deals with not only speech but also voice, swallowing and neurogenic disorders. Speech therapy as a profession is relatively new to the United States. In 1925, the American Speech-language-Hearing Association (ASHA) was formed. It began as a need for helping solders returning from war with audiology and neurological disorders associated with speech. Also, there was a surge in immigrants coming to this country to fill the growing factory jobs at this time. Some of the disorders treated with speech therapy are Autism spectrum disorder, speech delay, stuttering, and disordered language. In my research, I focused on Verbal Behavior Therapy, also known as Verbal Behavior approach. It is a type of applied Behavioral analysis used in speech therapy. It was created and is based on B.F. Skinner’s Book Verbal Behavior, published in 1957. Skinner wrote this book to teach his functional view of language and to explain how we learn language through operants. He believed that language was a form of behavior and that it could be shaped and reinforced with “situations” in a child’s environment. Skinner believed that words should not be mere labels but we must also learn why we use these words and form a connection between the word and what it means. He also stated that the reaction of someone else to the use of a word is a form of reinforcement.In Verbal Behavior Therapy, there are four “pure” operants.Mand, Tact, Intraverbal and echoic.

B.F Skinner’s biggest critic was Noam Chomsky. He believed that language was innate and we were born with a pre-wired ability to communicate. He was particularly critical of the reinforcement part of Skinner’s theory. Chomsky argued that not every form of verbal behavior could be reinforced. Also, it is argued that parents will only reward the child using the correct word but not punish them if is grammatically incorrect. B.F Skinner’s biggest critic was Noam Chomsky. He believed that language was innate and we were born with a pre-wired ability to communicate. He was particularly critical of the reinforcement part of Skinner’s theory. Chomsky argued that not every form of verbal behavior could be reinforced.

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